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Crush Resistance Testing

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Crush resistance testing is the measurement of a compressive load to a point when a sample deforms, fractures, shatters or collapses. This type of test may be applied to a variety of products including corrugated cardboard, glass, bearings, bricks, concrete, or any sample where crush resistance is important. This is a common test used in packaging design and validation. Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand axially directed pushing forces. When the limit of compressive strength is reached, brittle materials are crushed.

Usually, a crush resistance test involves a load limit. The material to be tested is compressed and compared to the load limit. Maximum load, load at break and work at maximum load are calculated.
By crushing samples of the material, significant facts can be learned for predicting the performance of full capacity machines with acceptable accuracy. In the lab, one element at a time can be changed while all others are held constant. Under such conditions, any changes in crushing results can be isolated and evaluated.

Three examples of crush resistance testing are:

• An edge crush test is used to measure the cross-direction crushing of a sample of corrugated board. It gives information on the ability of a particular board construction to resist crushing. It provides some relationship with the peak top-to-bottom compression strength of empty single wall regular slotted containers in laboratory conditions.

• Testing of the crush resistance of pellets or tablets. Individual pellets taken from a representative sample are placed between two flat surfaces, subjected to a compressive load, and the force required to crush the pellet is measured. The procedure is replicated and the average of all measurements taken is determined.

• Testing the crush-extrusion resistance or compressive strength of a gasket material is a significant issue with regard to the selection of a given material for use in a specific sealing application. The significance of the test method is based partially on the assumption that a material, once it has been crushed or extruded, it will no longer function effectively as a seal.

TEST STANDARDS:

• ASTM B939 - 09 Standard Test Method for Radial Crushing Strength, K, of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Bearings and Structural Materials
• ASTM D2659 - 11 Standard Test Method for Column Crush Properties of Blown Thermoplastic Containers
• ASTM D2659 - 11 Standard Test Method for Column Crush Properties of Blown Thermoplastic Containers
• ASTM B939 - 09 Standard Test Method for Radial Crushing Strength, K, of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Bearings and Structural Materials